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Trends in Cell Biology
This journal offers authors two options (open access or subscription) to publish research

Sep 01, 2022

Volume 32Issue 9p721-814, e1-e2
After the famous work ‘La trahison des images’ by the Belgian artist René Magritte, this image is a reference to the common misconception that citrullination has something to do with citrus fruits. In fact, the amino acid citrulline was first discovered in a watermelon (citrullus in latin). Both citrulline and the enzymes mediating citrullination in humans have been subject to research for many decades. On pages 746–761 in this issue, Yu and Proost summarize the highlights of citrullination in health and disease. Cover design by Marfa Blanter and Karen Yu....
After the famous work ‘La trahison des images’ by the Belgian artist René Magritte, this image is a reference to the common misconception that citrullination has something to do with citrus fruits. In fact, the amino acid citrulline was first discovered in a watermelon (citrullus in latin). Both citrulline and the enzymes mediating citrullination in humans have been subject to research for many decades. On pages 746–761 in this issue, Yu and Proost summarize the highlights of citrullination in health and disease. Cover design by Marfa Blanter and Karen Yu.

TrendsTalk

  • Young researchers series #5

    • Vittoria Graziani,
    • Seba Nadeef,
    • Heta Patel
    Trends in Cell Biology kicks off a ‘TrendsTalk’ series in which several young researchers from different backgrounds speak out about their experiences in academia. We have compiled a list of questions to get the authors started with the conversation and ask them to make up one question they wish they had been asked and answer that too. The aim is to celebrate diversity and inspire the entire scientific community to collaborate in building a safe, enjoyable, and fulfilling workplace.

Science & Society

  • Creating inclusive environments in cell biology by casual mentoring

    • Jacqueline A. De Lora,
    • Antentor Hinton Jr.,
    • Christina M. Termini
    Informal mentoring affects the development of cell biologists by providing essential career, scientific, and educational guidance to mentees. In this piece, we discuss the importance of formally recognizing casual mentorship to encourage this crucial form of mentorship that contributes to the advancement of an inclusive cell biology community.

Forum

  • Roles of YAP/TAZ in ferroptosis

    • Suchitra Magesh,
    • Danfeng Cai
    Ferroptosis is a unique iron-dependent form of regulated cell death. Recently, researchers found that ferroptosis was sensitive to cell density, regulated by Hippo signaling. This article summarizes the roles of the Hippo pathway effectors Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) in ferroptosis and the therapeutic potential of activating ferroptosis in cancer.

Reviews

  • DNA single-strand break repair and human genetic disease

    • Keith W. Caldecott
    DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) are amongst the commonest DNA lesions arising in cells, with many tens of thousands induced in each cell each day. SSBs arise not only from exposure to intracellular and environmental genotoxins but also as intermediates of normal DNA metabolic processes, such as the removal of torsional stress in DNA by topoisomerase enzymes and the epigenetic regulation of gene expression by DNA base excision repair (BER). If not rapidly detected and repaired, SSBs can result in RNA polymerase stalling, DNA replication fork collapse, and hyperactivation of the SSB sensor protein poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1).
  • Insights into peptidylarginine deiminase expression and citrullination pathways

    • Karen Yu,
    • Paul Proost
    Peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) are calcium-dependent enzymes that mediate citrullination, an irreversible post-translational modification (PTM). PAD enzymes have received increasing attention in (patho-)physiology since multi-omics analysis accelerated their expression profiling. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of PAD expression at the RNA and protein levels, and a list of annotated substrates per PAD isozyme. We discuss novel roles of citrullination in cellular growth, epigenetic regulation, tissue remodeling, inflammation, and cancer in mouse models and humans.
  • Moonlighting translation factors: multifunctionality drives diverse gene regulation

    • Dorian Farache,
    • Sadie P. Antine,
    • Amy S.Y. Lee
    Translation factors have traditionally been viewed as proteins that drive ribosome function and ensure accurate mRNA translation. Recent discoveries have highlighted that these factors can also moonlight in gene regulation, but through functions distinct from their canonical roles in protein synthesis. Notably, the additional functions that translation factors encode are diverse, ranging from transcriptional control and extracellular signaling to RNA binding, and are highly regulated in response to external cues and the intrinsic cellular state.
  • Mechanical regulation of cell-cycle progression and division

    • Vivek K. Gupta,
    • Ovijit Chaudhuri
    Cell-cycle progression and division are fundamental biological processes in animal cells, and their biochemical regulation has been extensively studied. An emerging body of work has revealed how mechanical interactions of cells with their microenvironment in tissues, including with the extracellular matrix (ECM) and neighboring cells, also plays a crucial role in regulating cell-cycle progression and division. We review recent work on how cells interpret physical cues and alter their mechanics to promote cell-cycle progression and initiate cell division, and then on how dividing cells generate forces on their surrounding microenvironment to successfully divide.
  • Featured Article
  • Regulation of gene expression by glycolytic and gluconeogenic enzymes

    • Xueli Bian,
    • Hongfei Jiang,
    • Ying Meng,
    • Ying-ping Li,
    • Jing Fang,
    • Zhimin Lu
    Gene transcription and cell metabolism are two fundamental biological processes that mutually regulate each other. Upregulated or altered expression of glucose metabolic genes in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis is a major driving force of enhanced aerobic glycolysis in tumor cells. Importantly, glycolytic and gluconeogenic enzymes in tumor cells acquire moonlighting functions and directly regulate gene expression by modulating chromatin or transcriptional complexes. The mutual regulation between cellular metabolism and gene expression in a feedback mechanism constitutes a unique feature of tumor cells and provides specific molecular and functional targets for cancer treatment.
  • Transsulfuration, minor player or crucial for cysteine homeostasis in cancer

    • Hai-Feng Zhang,
    • Ramon I. Klein Geltink,
    • Seth J. Parker,
    • Poul H. Sorensen
    Open Access
    Cysteine, a thiol-containing amino acid, is crucial for the synthesis of sulfur-containing biomolecules that control multiple essential cellular activities. Altered cysteine metabolism has been linked to numerous driver oncoproteins and tumor suppressors, as well as to malignant traits in cancer. Cysteine can be acquired from extracellular sources or synthesized de novo via the transsulfuration (TSS) pathway. Limited availability of cystine in tumor interstitial fluids raises the possible dependency on de novo cysteine synthesis via TSS.
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